A Comprehensive Assessment of the Coracoid Process Dimensions in the South Indian Population Using 3D Computer Tomographic Reconstruction
Volume 8 | Issue 2 | Aug – Sep 2020 | Page: 37- 46 | Sandesh Madi S, Muthiah Muthu Magesh, Sujayendra DM, Vivek Pandey, Kiran K V Acharya
Authors: Sandesh Madi S , Muthiah Muthu Magesh , Sujayendra DM , Vivek Pandey , Kiran K V Acharya 
 Kasturba Medical College, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, India.
Address of Correspondence
Dr. Sandesh Madi S,
Kasturba Medical College, Manipal Academy of Higher
Education, Manipal, India.
Background: Awareness of the accurate dimensions of the coracoid is essential for (i) coracoclavicular ligament reconstructions and (ii) coracoid transfer procedures (e.g. Latarjet) for shoulder instability. The morphometric assessment of the coracoid process using three-dimensional computer tomography (3-D CT) in the Indian population has not been previously undertaken.
Materials and Methods: The study was aimed to conduct the morphometric assessment of coracoid process using 3-D CT reconstruction in the South Indian population and to compare the gender and side differences. In addition, we compared the dimensions of the coracoid process with the findings in the previous studies performed in different races and ethnicities. We also compared the results of our study with other morphometric studies conducted in India using dry bones. From the records, the 3D CT images of the shoulder (age between 20 and 60 years) were assessed. Fractures of the coracoid or previous history of surgery involving the coracoid were excluded from the study. The dimensions of coracoid were measured on the same final images by two observers using digital calipers, and an average of their measurements was recorded. A two-tailed independent t-test was used to measure the statistical significance.
Results: A total of 187 shoulders (120 males and 67 females), 3D CT images were assessed. The average age of the study population was 30.66 ± 7.21 years. The average length of coracoid was 40.11 ± 1.36 mm. Overall dimensions of tip of coracoid was 20.56 ± 1.67 mm (length), 13.01 ± 0.97 mm (width), and 9.24 ± 1.05mm (height). Overall dimensions of base of coracoid were 20.45 ± 2.26 mm (length) and 14.5 ± 0.86 mm (height). All the measurements were larger in males (P < 0.05). The side difference for all measurements was not statistically significant. The mean coracoid width was significantly larger than the mean coracoid thickness (P < 0.00001).
Conclusion: This study provides a comprehensive baseline data on the morphometry of the coracoid process in the South Indian population that will be valuable in pre-operative planning for the shoulder surgeons.
Keywords: Coracoid, Three-dimensional computer tomography scan, Tip, Base, Scapula, Shoulder.
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|How to Cite this article: Madi SS, Magesh MM, Sujayendra DM, Pandey V, Acharya KKV | A Comprehensive Assessment of the Coracoid Process Dimensions in the South Indian Population Using 3D Computer Tomographic Reconstruction | Journal of Karnataka Orthopaedic Association | August-September 2020; 8(2): 37-45.|
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